Jump to: navigation, search


Repeated token revocation requests, can lead to service degradation or disruption


There is currently no limit to the frequency of keystone token revocations that can be made by a single user, in any given time frame. If a user repeatedly makes token requests, and then immediately revokes the token, a performance degradation can occur and possible DoS (Denial of Serice) attacks could be directed towards keystone.

Affected Services / Software

All services using keystone. Mitaka, Liberty, Kilo, Nova, Juno, Havana, Icehouse, Grizzly, Folsom, Essex.


Token revocation can be self-served, with no restrictions enforced on the number of token revocations made by any user (including service users).

If token revocations are made in quick succession, response times starts to lengthen, due to the increasing entries made in the revocation_event table.

With no form of rate limiting in place, a single user can cause the OpenStack auth service to become poor in response time, resulting in a DoS style attack.

A cleanup of revocation events does occur, based on token expiration plus expiration_buffer (which is 30 minutes by default). However, with the default token TTL of 3600 seconds, a user can potentially fill up approximately several thousand events during that time.

Recommended Actions

For current stable OpenStack releases (Mitaka and previous), operators are recommended to deploy external rate-limiting proxies or web application firewalls, to provide a front layer of protection to keystone.

The following solutions may be considered, however it is key that the operator carefully plans and considers the individual performance needs of users and services within their OpenStack cloud, when configuring any rate limiting functionality.


Rate Limiting Filter

Repose provides a rate limiting filter, that can limit per IP address and to a specific HTTP method (DELETE in relation to this OSSN).

The following config may be considered for a single node. For more complex deployments, clusters can be constructed , utilizing a distributed data-store.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<system-model xmlns="http://docs.openrepose.org/repose/system-model/v2.0">
   <repose-cluster id="repose">
           <node id="repose_node1" hostname="localhost" http-port="8080"/>
           <filter name="ip-user"/>
           <filter name="rate-limiting"/>
           <endpoint id="keystone" protocol="http" hostname="http://idenity-server.acme.com" root-path="/" port="35357" default="true"/>
   <phone-home enabled="false"
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ip-user xmlns="http://docs.openrepose.org/repose/ip-user/v1.0">
   <user-header name="X-PP-User" quality="0.4"/>
   <group-header name="X-PP-Groups" quality="0.4"/>
   <group name="ipv4-group">
   <group name="match-all">

  • Note: Using the ip-user filter, will mean each IP address sending requests to

repose, will have its own rate-limit bucket. Therefore any IP exceeding the limit, will be blocked - but only that IP. If you are sending NAT'ed connections to repose, then you should consider, they will also be seen as a single IP, and grouped accordingly.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<rate-limiting xmlns="http://docs.openrepose.org/repose/rate-limiting/v1.0">
   <request-endpoint uri-regex="/limits" include-absolute-limits="false"/>
       <limit id="global" uri="*" uri-regex=".*" value="1000" unit="MINUTE"/>
   <limit-group id="limited" groups="limited" default="true">
       <limit id="all" uri="/auth/token" uri-regex="/.*" http-methods="DELETE" unit="MINUTE" value="10"/>
   <limit-group id="unlimited" groups="unlimited" default="false"/>

Key points to note with the above. The rate limit is limited to DELETE requests (which is the http method used to revoke a token), and to the URI /auth/token. Any IP which exceeds 10 revoke requests per minute, will be blocked for 1 minute.

Further details can be found on the openrepose wiki:


Other possible solutions


NGINX provides the limit_req_module, which can be used to provide a global rate limit. Using a map, it can be limited to just the DELETE method.

http {
     map $request_method $keystone {
     default         "";
     DELETE            $binary_remote_addr;
     limit_req_zone $keystone zone=keystone:10m rate=10r/m;
     server {
            location /auth/token {
            limit_req zone=keystone;

Further details can be found on the nginx site:



HAProxy can provide inherent rate-limiting, using stick-tables, with a General Purpose Counter (gpc)

# Monitors the number of request sent by an IP over a period of 10 seconds
stick-table type ip size 1m expire 10s store gpc0,http_req_rate(10s)
tcp-request connection track-sc1 src
tcp-request connection reject if { src_get_gpc0 gt 0 }

Further details can be found on the haproxy website:



A number of solutions can be explored here.









Contacts / References