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Gerrit, Jenkins, GitHub
クイックリファレンスは GerritWorkflow を参照して下さい。
- 1 Gerrit, Jenkins, GitHub
- 1.1 Using Gerrit
- 1.2 Reviewing a Change
- 2 Release Management
- 3 Resources
GitHub は Git コードリポジトリの管理と他の開発者とのやりとりを行う為のリソースです。 Jenkins は、機能性の確認とコードベースの各変更が意図した通りに作動する事を検証する為に、連続的に OpenStack の全コンポーネントのテストを行う為に使用されます。 Gerrit は元々 Android オープンソースプロジェクトにおける使用の為に開発されたコードレビューシステムで、各変更がメインのリポジトリにマージされる前のピアレビューと Jenkins によるテストというワークフローを構築できるようにするものです。
After making a change in their local Git repository, developers can easily push that change to Gerrit as a proposed change for the project. Jenkins will automatically run functional tests on the code and provide feedback on the change in Gerrit. Any OpenStack developer can provide feedback (in the form of a comment, or even line-by-line annotations) using Gerrit, and the core developers of the project can indicate whether they approve of the patch as is, or would like to see changes before it is integrated. Once patches are merged by Gerrit, the repository is pushed to the canonical public repository on GitHub.
The next sections describe how Gerrit fits into the developer workflow.
Visit https://review.openstack.org/ and click the Sign In link at the top-right corner of the page. Log in with your Launchpad ID.
Because Gerrit uses Launchpad OpenID single sign-on, you won't need a separate password for Gerrit, and once you log in to one of Launchpad, Gerrit, or Jenkins, you won't have to enter your password for the others.
Gerrit accounts are automatically synchronized with Launchpad, so your Gerrit account should already have the same username, full name, email address, ssh keys, and group membership.
Some information in Launchpad is not publicly available and so may not be copied over. The first time you log into Gerrit, you should click the Settings link at the top of the page, and then make sure that your Contact Information, SSH Public Keys, and Groups look correct. If not, please register your email address and SSH keys. If your group membership is not correct, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Setting up Git for Use with Gerrit
For a more comprehensive look at using Gerrit, see the Gerrit manual.
Gerrit uses a Change-Id footer in commits so that it can link Git commits to changes stored in its database. When you upload a revised change (to correct a problem or respond to code review comments), Gerrit will use the Change-Id footer to attach the commit as a new patchset on the existing gerrit change. This works best if the Change-Id is already in the original commit message, before it is even sent to Gerrit.
"git review" installs a commit hook into your repository that automatically adds Change-Id lines to your commits..
The Gerrit manual goes into more detail about change IDs.
Install the git-review tool, which is the tool OpenStack uses to simplify submission of reviews to Gerrit.
sudo pip install git-review
Pushing Changes from Git
Simply running git review should be sufficient to push your changes to Gerrit, assuming your repository is set up as described above, you don't need to read the rest of this section unless you want to use an alternate workflow.
If you want to push your changes without using git-review, you can push changes to gerrit like you would any other git repository, using the following syntax (assuming "gerrit" is configured as a remote repository):
git push gerrit HEAD:refs/for/$BRANCH[/$TOPIC]
Where $BRANCH is the name of the Gerrit branch to push to (usually "master"), and you may optionally specify a Gerrit topic by appending it after a slash character.
Git SSH Commands
If you find you are frequently executing Gerrit commands via SSH, you may wish to add something like the following to your ~/.ssh/config file:
Host review Hostname review.openstack.org Port 29418 User USERNAME
Which may shorten some SSH commands; the following are equivalent:
ssh -p 29418 review.openstack.org gerrit ls-projects ssh review gerrit ls-projects
Reviewing a Change
Log in to https://review.openstack.org/ to see proposed changes, and review them.
To provide a review for a proposed change in the Gerrit UI, click on the Review button (it will be next to the buttons that will provide unified or side-by-side diffs in the browser). In the code review, you can add a message, as well as a vote (+1,0,-1).
Any Openstack developer may propose or comment on a change (including voting +1/0/-1 on it). Openstack projects have a policy requiring two positive reviews from core reviewers. A vote of +2 is allowed from core reviewers, and should be used to indicate that they are a core reviewer and are leaving a vote that should be counted as such.
When a review has two +2 reviews and one of the core team believes it is ready to be merged, he or she should leave a +1 vote in the "Approved" category. You may do so by clicking the "Review" button again, with or without changing your code review vote and optionally leaving a comment. When a +1 Approved review is received, Jenkins will run tests on the change, and if they pass, it will be merged.
Gerrit Best Practices
If you are working on unrelated changes, you should use a topic branch so that there isn't a dependency between the changes.
When you start working on a new change, make sure you have the current repository head from github.
For more information about uploading changes to gerrit, see the Uploading Changes section of the Gerrit manual.
missing Change-Id in commit message
If you see an error like this:
! [remote rejected] HEAD -> refs/for/master (missing Change-Id in commit message)
Make sure that you have the Change-Id hook installed. If you don't, install it now, and the run git commit --amend and re-save your commit message. The hook will then add a Change-Id line.
If you did have the hook installed, there may be a syntax error with the Change-Id line. It must be in the last paragraph of the commit message, and it must be at the beginning of the line. Your commit message should look like this in your editor:
The text of your commit message is here. Change-Id: I5f55e68d1bdb42a0fa6f0b1a5432786d0395da51
squash commits first
If you see this message:
! [remote rejected] HEAD -> refs/for/master (squash commits first)
It means that you are trying to update an existing change in Gerrit, but you created two separate commits. Normally to update a change you should ammend an existing commit (see Updating a Change). If you have already made a second commit, you will need squash the last two commits in your tree. To do that, run:
git rebase -i HEAD~2
Your editor should appear with two commits listed, one per line. Change the word "pick" on the second line to "squash", so that it looks like:
pick xxxxxxx 2nd commit back squash yyyyyyy head
And save. You should then be able to upload your commit with git review.
Gerrit Merge Problems
Gerrit will fast-forward or merge changes as necessary when they are approved. If a conflict would be created by a merge, gerrit will not merge the change and will record an error message in the comments for the change. In these cases, you may need to rebase or merge the change, or if the repository head has changed significantly, you may need to change the patch.
If you don't already have the patch in your local repository, Gerrit provides commands on the web page for each change indicating how to download that change. You can then use git to correct the problem.
If you encounter other error messages from Gerrit, the Error Messages section of the Gerrit manual may offer some tips.
Between the Milestone Branch Point and the release of the corresponding milestone, there needs to be a separate branch in Gerrit for changes destined for the milestone release. Meanwhile, development on the master branch should continue as normal (with the addition that changes proposed for the milestone should also be proposed for master, and some changes for master may need to be applied to milestone-proposed).
This process creates an ephemeral milestone-proposed branch that is only available in Gerrit during the milestone process. When the milestone is released, a tag is applied to the final commit to record the state of the branch at the time.
Create milestone-proposed Branch
This step should be performed by the OpenStack Release Manager at the Release Branch Point.
- Go to https://review.openstack.org/ and sign in
- Select Admin, Projects, then the project
- Select Branches
- Enter milestone-proposed in the Branch Name field, and HEAD as the Initial Revision, then press Create Branch
In your local checkout:
git checkout master git pull git checkout milestone-proposed
Authoring Changes for milestone-proposed
Create topic branches as normal, but branch them from milestone-proposed rather than master.
git checkout milestone-proposed git pull git checkout -b MY-TOPIC-BRANCH
Changes for milestone-proposed should be submitted with:
git push gerrit HEAD:refs/for/milestone-proposed
Submit Changes in master to milestone-proposed
If a change to master should also be included in milestone-proposed, use this procedure to cherry-pick that change and submit it for review.
git checkout milestone-proposed git pull git checkout -b master-to-mp git cherry-pick <SHA1 or "master"> git push gerrit HEAD:refs/for/milestone-proposed git branch -D master-to-mp
git cherry-pick master will pick the most recent commit from master to apply, if you want a different patch, use the SHA1 of the commit instead.
Submitting Changes in milestone-proposed to master
Changes that originate in milestone-proposed should also be submitted to master. Use these commands to make an up-to-date topic branch from master, then cherry-pick changes from milestone-proposed to be applied to master.
git checkout master git pull git checkout -b mp-to-master git cherry-pick <SHA1 or milestone-proposed> git review git branch -D mp-to-master
git cherry-pick milestone-proposed will pick the most recent commit from milestone-proposed to apply, if you want a different patch, use the SHA1 of the commit instead.
Tagging a Release
This step should be performed by the OpenStack Release Manager when the release is made.
To tag the tip of the milestone-proposed branch with a release tag and push that tag to gerrit and github, run the following commands:
git checkout milestone-proposed git pull git tag -s RELEASE-TAG-NAME git push --tags gerrit
Running `git tag -s` signs the tag using GPG, so it's important to ensure that the person making the release have a valid GPG key.
End of Milestone
This step should be performed by the OpenStack Release Manager after the release is tagged.
When the milestone process is complete and the released commit is tagged, remove the milestone-proposed branch. The tag will persist, even after the branch is deleted, making it possible to restore the state of the tree.
- Go to https://review.openstack.org/ and sign in
- Select Admin, Projects, then the project
- Select Branches
- Select the checkbox next to milestone-proposed and hit Delete
See the Gerrit documentation, especially the User Guide, for more information on how to use Gerrit. It is also available within Gerrit by clicking on the Documentation link on the top of the page.
The Mahara Project also uses Git, Gerrit, and Jenkins in a similar manner (though with Gitorious instead of GitHub).
A description of many of the elements of the git workflow